The dependability of basic idea system of systematic dependability is to point to numerical control system to finish the capability that provides a function inside the time of formulary condition and regulation, breakdown is to pointed to a system to lose formulary function inside the time of formulary condition and regulation. Numerical control machine tool is complex old system, it involves a lot of technologies such as smooth, machine, report, fluid, malfunctioning is hard to avoid. Mechanical and rustily, mechanical wear, mechanical invalidation, electron yuan ageing of parts of an apparatus, plug-in unit contacts change of wave motion of voltage of undesirable, electric current, temperature, interference, noise, software is lost or itself has hidden trouble, dirt, operate error to wait to be able to bring about numerical control machine tool to give trouble. Breakdown of numerical control machine tool is diagnosed one. Breakdown diagnoses content 1) the movement diagnoses: Surveillant machine tool each action part, decide the place with bad start. Diagnostic place is ATC, APC and machine tool main shaft. 2) condition diagnoses: When machine tool electric machinery drives load, observation runs state. 3) spot check diagnoses: Order component of check hydraulic pressure, pneumatic component and strong report cabinet regularly. 4) the operation diagnoses: Surveillance operates mistake and program mistake. 5) breakdown of numerical control system diagnoses oneself: 2. The diagnostic method of all sorts of CNC systems that CNC system diagnostic technology uses currently is Baconian rise to be able to be divided roughly it is 3 kinds big. (1) start diagnose (Star Up Diagnostics) till begins CNC system to enter normal moving preparation state from electrify every time, systematic interior diagnoses what the process carries out automatically. Diagnostic content controls software for the most crucial hardware in the system and system, if CPU, memory, I/O is unit,wait for device or the peripheral equipment such as unit of reader of module and CRT/MDI unit, punched tape, floppy disk. (2) online diagnose (On, Line Diagnostics) points to those who adopt CNC system inside outfit program, when the system is in normal moving condition, to CNC system itself and each servo that are linked together with CNC device are unit, servo electric machinery, unit of main shaft servo and main shaft electric machinery and peripheral equipment undertake be diagnosticed automatically, examination. Generally speaking, the state that includes to diagnose a function oneself shows and breakdown information shows two shares. . Interface shows: Give breakdown to happen in numerical control interior to distinguish, still happen in PLC or machine tool side, be necessary to understand CNC and PLC or CNC and machine tool between accept condition and CNC in-house position. . Internal state of affairs shows: (A) the condition that because external cause is caused,does not implement a directive shows. (B) restoration condition shows. (C) state of alarm shows TH, namely punched tape level and perpendicular desired result, show the position of the aperture of punched tape mistake when calling the police. (D) unusual position shows magnetism bubble memory. (E) the indication that positional deviation measures. (F) rotate the frequency of transformer or inductive synchronized detects the result shows. (G) servo control information shows. (H) memory content shows etc. The content that breakdown information shows has about a hundred commonly, can amount to 600 at most. This a lot of information mostly with calling the police the form of date and proper annotate appears. Can divide into commonly undermentioned a few kinds big: (A) overheat calls the police kind; (B) the system calls the police kind; (C) memory calls the police kind; (D) process designing / set kind, this kind of breakdown all is the soft trouble that mistake of operation, process designing causes; (E) servo kind: The breakdown that concerns with servo unit and servo electric machinery namely calls the police; (F) journey switch calls the police kind; (G) presswork the join breakdown between circuit board kind. (3) diagnose from the line (Off, Line Diagnostics) the barrier of main purpose hereat that diagnoses from the line guides announcement breakdown locates, do one's best locates breakdown in as far as possible inside little scope. Diagnose of contemporary CNC system from the line with software, already controlled software to exist together with CNC system more commonly in CNC system, when such maintenance are diagnosed more convenient. (A) communication diagnoses: The user needs to turn over CNC system technical secondary school to use only " communication interface " join arrives on common line, and in Xi Menzi the company maintains special communication of the center to diagnose the computer " data phone " also receive line means to go up repeatedly, send diagnostic order to CNC system by the computer next, convey test data return the computer to undertake analytic closing concluding. (B) from repair system: Reserve module criterion system can make automatically breakdown module off line and put through reserve module, make the system enters regular job state quickly thereby. (C) have AI (artificial intelligence) expert breakdown of the function diagnoses a system: When ① is tackling real problem, the expert that passes the technical knowledge that has a certain field is analysed and explain data and make a decision. ② expert system uses the computer model of expert inference method to solve a problem, and get conclusion and expert are identical. 3. The diagnostic method of servo uses glow diode to make instructions the account that breakdown may produce, for example overheat calls the police, flow too call the police, press too call the police, owe pressure call the police, i2t is worth monitoring (use at power source circuit) etc. Numerical control machine tool is maintained one. Summarize the maintenance concept of numerical control machine tool, cannot when system of numerical control of pure bureau be confined to malfunctions, how to exclude breakdown and seasonable repair, make numerical control system is thrown as early as possible use, still should include to be used correctly wait with daily attention. 2. The measure of correct operation and system of use numerical control (1) the examination before electrify of numerical control system 1) inside examination CNC device presswork individually circuit board originallies whether closely, each outlet have without become loose. 2) the regulation that checks all join cable between CNC device and outside to whether press the join manual that offers randomly seriously, correct and reliable ground joins. 3) the requirement that communicates the join that inputs power source to whether accord with CNC device to set. 4) the demand that affirms whether all sorts of hardware set inside CNC device accord with CNC device. Pass afore-mentioned inspections only, CNC device ability throws electrify to move. (2) the examination after electrify of numerical control system 1) whether do each fan in wanting to inspect numerical control plant above all run normally. 2) affirm each pressworking the direct current source on circuit or module is normal, whether be in permission fluctuant range. 3) all sorts of parameter that affirm CNC device further. 4) when numerical control device and machine tool when online electrify, should receiving electrify source while, as press impaction urgent the preparation that stops pushbutton, appear in order to have when emergency at any time dump. 5) move with the hand give shift each axes with low speed, the indication that watchs way of machine tool shift is correct. 6) the action that has a few times returning machine tool datum mark, use machine tool of examination numerical control to whether have return datum mark function, and the position that returns datum mark every time agrees whether completely. 7) the function of CNC device checks. 3. Safeguard of CNC system daily 1) the regulations system that maintains of formulate CNC system daily. 2) the door that should open numerical control ark and strong report ark less as far as possible. 3) time clear of numerical control device medicinal powder hot ventilated system. 4) the input of CNC system / safeguard of take-off regularly. 5) be checked regularly and change dc machine brush. 6) the voltage of electrified wire netting that often monitors CNC device is used. 7) what memory uses cell is fixed change. 8) CNC system is long-term need not the maintenance when. 9) have affix an official seal brushs circuit board safeguard. Brush circuit board to should install the electrify on CNC device to run period of time regularly to the equipment affix an official seal that already purchased, damage in case. 10) the preparation that makes good maintenance early days works: ① technology prepares: The knows a system adequately property when maintenance technician Ying Zaiping. ② tool prepares: As final user, maintenance tool needs to plan the instrument installation of a few convention only, if alternating voltage is expressed, volts d.c. watch, what use formula of pressing with a finger possibly is OK also be digital type, measure an error to be inside 2% limits of ± can. Avometer also is a kind of commonly used appearance. ③ spare parts prepares: Once the component as a result of CNC system or yuan attaint of parts of an apparatus, make the system malfunctions. To can remove trouble in time, the user should prepare a few commonly used spare parts. 4. Once CNC system malfunctions,breakdown deals with, operation personnel should adopt the system to park step urgently, stop a system to move, protect good spot. (1) the way of working way work that the expressional ① system of breakdown malfunctions has: Tape (punched tape means) , MDI (the hand moves data to input means) , MEMORY (memory means) , EDIT (editor) , HANDLE (handwheel) , JOG (the dot is moved) means. ② MDI/DPL (the hand moves data to input / show) . ③ system condition shows when to the system malfunctions, did not call the police however sometimes, right now need observes the condition with located system through diagnosing a picture. Circumstance of out of tolerance of error of ④ fixed position. ⑤ on CRT call the police reach call the police date. The speed when occurrence error of contrail of ⑥ cutting tool. (2) the time that the breakdown of frequent degree ① of breakdown produces and frequency. When ② processes congener work, malfunctioning probability. The kind that ③ breakdown produces, differentiate whether with feed the speed, means that change a knife or it is with whorl cutting is concerned. The block of ④ occurrence breakdown. (3) the repeatability ① of breakdown repeats the block that causes trouble carry out for many times have observation, will inspect the repeatability of breakdown. ② has the real numerical value inside the process designing value of this block and system comparative, affirm both whether to have difference. Whether has ③ produced same breakdown before the system originally? (4) temperature of environment of outside state ① . The oscillatory source all round ② . The installation position of ③ system is checked, whether to when giving trouble, get of sunshine point-blank etc. Whether did ④ cutting fluid, lube splatter whether is water drunk in systematic ark, system ark, get the macerate of water (if central heating is slack) etc. ⑤ inputs voltage investigation, whether does input power source have value of fluctuant, voltage to wait. Whether is there the device that uses big electricity inside ⑥ factory. Whether is ⑦ vicinity put in interference source. Whether be being repaired near ⑧ or debug machine tool, installation new machine tool. Whether does ⑨ repeat repetition breakdown to be concerned with outside element? (5) the breakdown that after through what is circumstance ① operated after through what is circumstance ① operated, concerned operation just produces? Is the mode of operation of ② machine tool right? Whether to include inside ③ program increment dictates? (6) machine tool of ① of machine tool circumstance adjusts a state. Whether does ② machine tool produce vibration in carriage process? Is the point of a knife that ③ place uses cutting tool normal? Whether was deflection amount set when ④ changes a knife? Is what ⑤ clearance compensates appropriate? Is ⑥ machine other whether change along with temperature and be whether change along with temperature and out of shape? Is ⑦ workpiece measured correct? (7) whether has been locomotive condition ① changed in locomotive process or had whether has been locomotive condition ① changed in locomotive process or adjusted locomotive way? Whether is side of ② machine tool in state of alarm? Whether to already make good movement prepare? Does the carry out on face plate of operation of ③ machine tool lead switch whether set is " 0 " ? Whether ④ machine tool is in chain condition? Whether ⑤ system is in park position urgently? Whether is the fuse of ⑥ system burned? Is the set of means select switch on face plate of operation of ⑦ machine tool correct? (8) is cable of wiring circumstance ① complete between machine tool and system nondestructive? Whether are line of ② alternating current source and systematic interior electrical wiring installed apart? Whether do ③ power supply cord and line take a line apart? Is ground connection of line of ④ signal screen correct? Whether is the electromagnetism component such as ⑤ relay, electro-magnet and electromotor restrained of noise implement? (9) the ark of machine of visual examination ① of CNC device. Whether is examination damaged circumstance is mixed make in the condition have drills that opens cupboard door. ② machine cabinet is inner. Is job of fan electric machinery regular? Control pollutes a program partly. Reader of ③ punched tape. Whether does punched tape reader have contamination? ④ power source is unit. Is fuse normal? ⑤ cable. Is cable connector outlet inserted whether completely, screw? ⑥ pressworks circuit board. Presswork does circuit board amount have without be short of caustic? ⑦ MDI/CRT is unit. (10) it is normal that about the reader of examination ① punched tape of punched tape the day closes? Is the set that ② operates about punched tape correct? Whether is ③ punched tape folded, knit and put is there contamination? Is the joint of ④ punched tape denied normally? The Kong Youmo damaged on ⑤ punched tape? Whether has this punched tape used ⑥ ? Is what ⑦ uses the punched tape of black punched tape or other color? 5. Breakdown checks methodological １ . Direct way this is a kind of the basiccest method. The observation of the unusual appearance such as all sorts of light when maintenance technician passes pair of breakdown happening, sound, flavour and the each part that watchs a system seriously, often can narrow breakdown limits a module or presswork together circuit board. This requirement maintenance technician has rich practical experience, should have the capacity of the wider knowledge of much discipline and integrated judgement. 2. Although have not achieve intelligence to change very high rate,diagnose the numerical control system with functional modern magic art oneself, but had had diagnose a function more by force oneself. Can monitor at any time the working state of the hardware of numerical control system and software. Once discovery is unusual, be in what information calls the police on CRT or give trouble with glow diode written instructions instantly roughly origin. Use diagnose a function oneself, also can show the state of the indirect mouth signal of system and lead plane, judge a breakdown to happen in mechanical part or part of numerical control system thereby, make instructions those who give trouble roughly place. This method is a kind of the most effective method when current maintenance. 3. Alleged function program tests standard of functional program test the law is the commonly used function numerical control system and special function, be like cutting of interpolation of linear fixed position, circular arc, whorl, fixed loop, user grand program with method of manual process designing or automatic process designing, the work out checks punched tape into program of a function, send into numerical control system through punched tape reader, start what numerical control system makes to undertake moving next, jie carries out the accuracy of these functions and dependability with checking a machine tool, the likelihood that judges a breakdown happening then origin. The examination when this method switchs on the mobile phone to first time of long-term and unused numerical control machine tool and machine tool treatment create waste product but fall without the circumstance that call the police again, it is process designing certainly hard temporarily mistake or it is operation mistake, or the judgement when machine tool breakdown is one better method. 4. Commutative law this is a kind of method that goes easily simply, also be one of the most commonly used methods when the spot is judged. So-called trade law gives trouble in the analysis namely roughly below the circumstance of origin, maintenance technician can be used spare presswork circuit board, pattern plate, integrated circuit chip or yuan parts of an apparatus replaces the share that has doubtful point, narrow breakdown limits thereby presswork circuit board or chip one class. It also is the validity that analyses in test and verify actually. It is before equipment board exchange, should microscope has board in good condition, should check the condition of equipment board to answer with former board position is completely consistent. This includes the select switch on examination board, short circuit establishs the position of emplacement and potentiometer marvellously. The memory in displacement CNC device board when, the initialization that makes memory to the system toward contact need is operated (the FS that is like Japanese FANUC company, the magnetism bubble memory that 6 systems use has this job with respect to need) , reset all sorts of numerical control data, otherwise system will still cannot work normally. If change the memory of the 7 systems of FANUC company board later, need to input parameter afresh, undertake allocation operating to memory division. The one pace after was being lacked, once part program is inputted, generation 60 call the police (memory capacity is insufficient) . Some CNC systems were changing advocate board later, belt need to have a few specific operations. If FNUC company is in FS, 10 systems, must press certain operation measure, input 9000 ～ first 9031 choices parameter, just can input 0000 systematic parameter to 8010 and PC parameter next. Anyhow, must the strictly operation according to relative interconnected system, demand that maintains a manual undertakes operating. 5. Move law is so-called move law is 2 when same function will have in CNC system presswork chip of circuit board, module, integrated circuit or yuan parts of an apparatus is exchanged each other, observe whether breakdown phenomenon is transferred subsequently. Thereby, can determine breakdown position of the system quickly. This method exchanges a kind of the law namely actually. Accordingly, concerned note exchanges law place to narrate together. 6. Parameter examination law is well-known, numerical control parameter can affect the function of numerical control machine tool directly. Parameter is to deposit normally in magnetism bubble memory or deposit in need by batteries in retentive CMOS RAM, once batteries inadequacy or some kind of interference element as a result of the outside, can make individual parameter missing or change, produce a disorder, make the machine tool cannot work normally. Right now, through checking, correction parameter, can trouble removal. When the machine tool ground of the for no reason at all when long-term and unused job appears abnormal phenomenon or have trouble and do not have when calling the police, answer according to breakdown feature, check and proofread concerned parameter. Additional, through the numerical control machine tool that moves for a long time, as a result of its mechanical drive disk assembly wears away, electric do not have the reason such as a performance change, also need to undertake adjustment about parameter to its. Because be revised not in time,the breakdown of some machine tools often is certain incommensurate parameter be caused by. Of course these breakdown are the category that attributes breakdown. 7. Measure compare manufacturer of system of law CNC to presswork in the design when circuit board, to adjust, the advantage of maintenance, pressworking designed on circuit board many detect with terminal. The user also can use these terminal to be measured quite presswork normally circuit board pressworks with what have trouble the difference between circuit board. Can detect these voltage that measure terminal or weaveform, the location position of the origin that analyses breakdown and breakdown. Even, it is normal to still can be opposite sometimes presswork circuit is made artificially " breakdown " , if disconnect,join line or short circuit, dial package to wait, in order to judge the origin of real trouble. For this, maintenance technician should be being accumulated at ordinary times presswork crucial position or the when it is normal to give breakdown place easily to be in correct weaveform on circuit board and voltage value. Because CNC system manufacturer often does not provide the data about this respect. 8. When if if not have,have,the breakdown expression that knock law appears when the system is, often can check the position that gives trouble to be in with knock law. Because CNC system is,this is presswork by many circuit board composition, every board go up to have a lot of solder places again, board receive through inserting again between occasional module reach cable to be linked together. Accordingly, any empty solder or contact are undesirable, cause trouble possibly. Should beat the doubtful point with solder having theory and undesirable contact to be in gently with insulant, breakdown can repeat emersion for certain. 9. Local warm up after course of CNC system moves for a long time yuan parts of an apparatus all wants ageing, function is met addle. When they have not damage completely, when occurrence breakdown becomes, do not have sometimes. Can wait with hot blower or electric iron at this moment come local yuan of parts of an apparatus that warms up to be suspected, quicken its ageing, so that reveal breakdown part thoroughly. Of course, when using this method, the temperature parameter that must notice yuan of parts of an apparatus, will not be good parts of an apparatus is baked bad so. 10. The composition of principle analysis law according to CNC system principle, the logistic n that can nod each from the analysis on logic and diagnostic parameter (be like voltage value or weaveform) , use avometer, logistic pen, oscillograph or logistic analyzer to undertake metrical next, analyse and compare, locate to breakdown thereby. Use this kind of method, it is clear to ask maintenance technician must have to the principle of whole system or every circuit, more intimate knowledge. Besides the method of breakdown examination test with commonly used above, still have unplug board law, voltage is pulled slant law, open loop detects law and going up the diagnostic means that Zhang Zhongceng offers a variety of. These examination methods have a characteristic each, according to different breakdown phenomenon, can choose a few kinds of methods to apply neatly at the same time, undertake integration analysis to breakdown, ability narrows stage by stage breakdown limits, remove trouble quickly. 6. The common method of trouble removal appears when numerical control system call the police when malfunctioning, maintenance technician is not eager to approach, and should have observation and test more. １ . Spot of sufficient investigation trouble this is a when maintenance technician obtains first-hand data important step. Want to be investigated to handlers on one hand, enquire the whole process of occurrence breakdown in detail, examine sheet of out of service record, understanding happening crosses what phenomenon, ceng Cai has taken what measure to wait; On the other hand, want to want to do meticulous perambulate to the spot. Presswork each to systematic interior from systematic exterior circuit board should be looked carefully at attentively whether to have unusual place. In affirm systematic electrify has a circumstance to fall without danger, square but electrify, observation system has He Yi constant, the content that CRT shows. 2. The CNC system intelligence with the current origin that analyses generation breakdown seriously changes rate lower, the system still cannot diagnose a malfunctioning exact cause automatically. Often be same call the police date can have a variety of cause, narrow breakdown impossibly particular some part. Accordingly, when the origin that analyses breakdown, must train of thought is open. Often have this kind of case, the some part that diagnoses a system oneself has trouble, but investigate its are genetic, be absent however numerical control system, be in however mechanical part. So, no matter be CNC system, machine tool strong report, district of mechanical still, hydraulic pressure, gas, want to cause the cause of this breakdown likely only, should list in the round as far as possible come, undertake be judged integratedly and be filtrationed, pass necessary test next, achieve diagnose and the goal that eliminate breakdown finally. Cause trouble of numerical control system and another when discover not easily main reason is interference. According to experience, have roughly below a few kinds of reasons. (１ ) the assembly of machine tool manufacturer technology issue assembles craft when does the show that bad report is jamming a respect have as follows roughly. ① did not use method of a bit ground connection. Some machine tools are produced for graph save trouble, everywhere nearby ground connection, the result causes many bits of ground connection, form the ground circumfluent. Because ② receives a place to choose undeserved or the contact is undesirable, empty solder causes ground connection resistor to greaten and cause noise to disturb even. The signal communication of ③ CNC system and lead plane, have a lot of it is to use screen line connective, if be opposite screen ground processing is undeserved, did not join according to the regulation (if some screen ground press a regulation to be made only,receive in systematic side, and cannot receive in machine tool side, if pursue 4.
3, 1 is shown) also be a kind of element that causes interference. (2) the interference source that the electromagnetism component such as the contactor in the strong report ark of machine tool of numerical control of strong report interference, relay all is CNC system. Communicate contactor, those who communicate electric machinery is frequent start, when stopping, phenomenon of its electromagnetism induction can make CNC system controls aiguille of the generation in circuit or wave to emerge wait for noise, disturb regular job of the system. Accordingly, must take step to these electromagnetism interference, give eliminate. It is the three-phase input end that uses the two end that communicating contactor coil or alternating current machine normally shunt-wound RC network, and in dc contactor or the coil in dc magnetism a powerful person two end merge into instead the method that wait comes to diode of a follow on current the interference noise that restrains these electric equipment generation (if pursue 4.
3, 2 are shown) . But should notice a bit, the absorption that these merging into of the network should not be more than even the line 20cm, otherwise, its effect is not ideal. In the meantime, check the part of input power source of the control circuit of CNC system, also want to take step. General and multi-purpose surge is absorbed implement paralell connection is between power supply cord, if pursue 4.
3, 3 are shown, can absorb the aiguille voltage in electrified wire netting effectively thereby, have certain protective effect. (3) the interference of power supply circuitry because inadequacy of electric power of our country parcel area and power supply frequency are flabby allocate with user factory electrified wire netting unreasonable the interference that waits for an element to create power supply line. Phenomenon but reduce exceeds pressure, owe pressure, frequency and phasic drift, harmonic is lack fidelity, in all the reason such as modular noise and constant model noise. To support way of power supply electrical wiring interference can take following step. ① is in the area with bigger change of voltage of electrified wire netting, answer to increase electronic manostat before the input power source of CNC system, in order to support wave motion of voltage of electrified wire netting. If can add power source regulator, criterion the effect is better, but must not string together from Ou transformer. The capacity of the power supply circuitry of ② user factory should satisfy the requirement of capacity of electric equipment of numerical control machine tool. Machine tool of ③ numerical control avoids with electric spark equipment and high-power case, stop frequent equipment common one artery, in lest the interference of these equipment passes power supply line,acting CNC system. When machine tool equipment finds a place for, ④ numerical control should be far from the frequency conversion equipment such as furnace of intermediate frequency furnace, high frequency induction. 3. Start work repair once breakdown place already was found, but when at hand does not have the spare parts that can change however, usable transplanting uses method, will solve as lash-up measure. For example some component became bad (if wait with blame door or trigger) , but of attaint often be the some road in package only, it is good that a few parts return other. And pressworking in the design of circuit board, just often used the one part in package again, did not use entirely full. Right now, can regard lash-up as to use the fetch of part of have more than needed that did not use. Specific course of action is, cut off already damaged of the part insert a foot (include to input and output a foot) , the component that draws line of signal input, output to have more than needed by division line next inserts a foot to go up can. Machine tool of typical numerical control maintains a method one. Xi Menzi the maintenance of 3 systems 1) after power source puts through, show without fundamental picture (A) circuit board shows without monitoring lamp on 03840 date board (B) lamp of monitoring of bright ① of lamp of the monitoring on 03840 circuit board twinkles. If criticalflicker frequency is monitoring lamp 1Hz, criterion EPROM has trouble; If criticalflicker frequency is 2Hz, criterion PLC has trouble; If twinkle with 4Hz frequency, maintain batteries to call the police, state voltage is insufficient already. ② monitoring lamp is left destroy right bright. The interface that expresses to operate face plate board 03731 board breakdown or CRT have trouble. ③ monitoring lamp often shines. This kind of breakdown, normally the reason has: CPU has trouble; EPROM has trouble; Systematic bus line (namely backboard) have the set on breakdown, circuit board by accident, mistake of machine tool data, and circuit board (like memory board, coupling board, measure board) hardware has trouble. 2) the disorder displays on CRT (A) carry battery (lithium battery) voltage is too low, can show 711 to call the police commonly at this moment. (B) because power source board or memory ever were pulled out, cause memery block disorder thereby. This is a kind of soft breakdown, as long as CNC interior the program keeps clear of and new input can remove trouble. (C) power source board or memory board the hardware breakdown that go up causes a program to display a disorder. (D) if show on CRT,call the police 513 numbers, the capacity that represents memory is insufficient. 3) cannot start in the program below automatic means (A) if arise to call the police 351 numbers right now, after stating CNC system is started, did not undertake the machine tool winds the operation of datum mark. (B) the system is in hold position automatically. (C) prohibit be being started circularly. Check the interface signal Q64 between PLC and NC.
3. 4) breakdown of feed axis motion (A) feed axis cannot move. The cause that causes this trouble has: ① mode of operation is incorrect; The signal that ② sends to NC from PLC is abnormal; ③ accuse board have trouble (like 03350, 03325, 03315 board have trouble) . ④ happening calls the police 22 numbers, it states positional annulus did not get ready. ⑤ measures a system to have trouble. If arise 108, 118, 128, 138 call the police, this is to measure sensor too dirty those who cause. If arise 104, 114, 124, 134 call the police, criterion positional annulus has hardware trouble. ⑥ movement rod is in software spacing condition. Want to be able to remove machine tool axis toward opposite way motion only. ⑦ should happen 101, 111, 121, when 131 call the police, state the machine tool is in mechanical clamp condition. (B) feed axis motion is discontinuous. (C) feed axis is vibratile. The speed annulus of ① feed driving unit and voltaic annulus parameter did not undertake maximize or alternating current machine is short of photograph or detecting element attaint, all can cause feed axis to vibrate. Of ② CNC system accuse board have trouble. ③ orgnaization friction is too big. Data of machine tool of ④ numerical control has by accident, the correct set of data of concerned machine tool is as follows. (D) feed axis out of control. If ① has 101, 111, 121, 131 call the police to undertake checking to clamp please. If ② has 102, 112, 122, 132 call the police, explain statement cost is too high. ③ feed driving unit has trouble. Set of data of machine tool of ④ numerical control is wrong, create positional operating ring the road is make a present of of positive and negative. ⑤ CNC device loses the error of instruction line polarity to driving unit. (E) 103 ～ call the police 133 numbers. This is outline monitoring calls the police. Speed annulus parameter does not have maximize or KV coefficient is too big. (F) 105 ～ call the police 135 numbers. Positional drift causes greatly too. Move the quantity exceeds 500mv, check N233 of ～ of N230 of drift compensating parameter. 5) the top rotate speed that main shaft breakdown exceeds place to choose gear wheel like rotate speed of fructification border main shaft, produce 225 to call the police; If monitoring of annulus of main shaft position malfunctions, produce 224 to call the police. 6) V · 24 serial interface call the police (A) when still did not send inside 20 seconds or receiving data: ① peripheral equipment breakdown; ② cable has by accident; ③ 03840 board have trouble. (B) punched tape information cannot be inputted, its reason has: ① operates the position that switch of the key on face plate is closing, cause punched tape program to cannot be inputted thereby; ② if the data protection switch on 0384 date board is not when release position, cannot data-in punched tape; If ③ cannot input L80 ～ L99 and program of a work song sung to synchronize movements of L900 ～ L999, as a result of,be more PLC and · of Q64 of NC interface signal 3 for " 1 " (prohibit circularly) cause. (C) stop a mistake. ① baud leads set mistake; ② reader has trouble; Data of ③ machine tool is erroneous. 2. The Ⅲ system maintenance of FANUC company can consult " numerical control machine tool is used with maintenance " one book. The treatment technology of the craft of CNC Turning and the craft that lathe of tool numerical control machines and bed of general be open to traffic is similar, but because numerical control lathe is,hold clip, successive and automatic treatment completes all turning process, should note the following respects consequently. １ . Dosage of logical choice cutting 2. Logical choice cutting tool (１ ) when thick car, should pick strength the cutting tool with tall, good durability, so that satisfy the requirement of quantity of big back penetration of a cutting tool, big feed when thick car. (2) when fine vehicle, should choose precision the cutting tool with tall, good durability, in order to assure the requirement of treatment precision. (3) to decrease the time that change a knife is mixed convenient to the knife, answer to use machine clip knife and machine clip bit as far as possible. 3. Logical choice clamping apparatus (１ ) choose general clamping apparatus to hold clip work as far as possible, avoid to use special fixture; (2) spare parts fixed position is standard coincide, in order to reduce fixed position error. 4. Course of treatment of of certain treatment course is in showing numerical control machine tool machines a process, cutting tool is mixed relative to the athletic contrail of the spare parts direction. (１ ) should assure to machine precision and surface coarse requirement; (2) should shorten as far as possible treatment course, reduce time of cutting tool idle stroke. 5. The connection that machines course and mental allowance is current, had not achieved in numerical control lathe popularize use condition to fall, should get on semifinished product commonly overmuch surplus, the surplus arrangement that contains hard cortex of forge, casting especially is machined on common lathe. If must use numerical control lathe to add man-hour, need to notice the agile arrangement of the program. 6. Point of clamping apparatus installation is current the join of hydraulic pressure chuck and oil cylinder of hydraulic pressure clamp relies on pull rod implementation, be like graph １ . Point of clamp of hydraulic pressure chuck is as follows: Use the screw cap on oil cylinder of hydraulic pressure of the debus that move a hand above all, debus pulls a tube, take out from main shaft back end, reoccupy moves hand debus chuck to secure bolt, can debus chuck. CK6432 (FANUC-0TD) process designing of numerical control lathe one. Instruction collect (X all uses a diameter to measure to the process designing quantity that waits like X, U) G00: Fast fixed position dictates. The format is G00X (U) Z (W) , x, Z is the eye punctuation when absolutely process designing, u, W is the eye punctuation when opposite process designing. Two axes with the machine tool at the same time the rapiddest rate begins campaign, but do not stop at the same time certainly, synthesizing cutting tool contrail namely is not linear certainly. This system can mix process designing, be like of G00X W. G01: Linear interpolation dictates. The format is G01X (U) Z (W) F , x, Z is the eye punctuation when absolutely process designing, u, W is the eye punctuation when opposite process designing, f value is interpolation speed, the unit is Mm/min or Mm/r, specific depend on set is G98 or G99. G02: Arrange round interpolation instruction. The format is G02X (U) Z (W) R ( of I K) F , x, Z is the eye punctuation when absolutely process designing, u, W is the eye punctuation when opposite process designing, r is radius (use at bad arc process designing only) , i, K is coordinate of the X of the centre of a circle, Z, f value is interpolation speed, the unit is Mm/min or Mm/r, specific depend on set is G98 or G99. Note: I uses radius amount, i, K is opposite quantity process designing from beginning to end. G03: Go against round interpolation instruction. The format is G03X (U) Z (W) R ( of I K) F , x, Z is the eye punctuation when absolutely process designing, u, W is the eye punctuation when opposite process designing, r is radius (use at bad arc process designing only) , i, K is coordinate of the X of the centre of a circle, Z, f value is interpolation speed, the unit is Mm/min or Mm/r, specific depend on set is G98 or G99. Note: I uses radius amount, i, K is opposite quantity process designing from beginning to end. G04: Suspend dictating. The format is G04 P(X U) , when using P (cannot decimally is nodded) , quantum of time is Ms, when X, U, quantum of time is S. The greatest delay time 9999.
999s. G20: Imperial unit set dictates. G21: Metric units set dictates. Attention: If some program does not appoint G20, G21, use pass the set cost when machine last. G27: Return reference point to detect instruction. The format is G27X (U) Z (W) T0000, dictate to before carrying out, must make tool carrier is answered zero times originally. Be like two designation coordinate to be worth is the coordinate value of machine tool reference point respectively, and two on machine tool face plate answer indicator light of 0 reference point to shine, explain the machine tool is correct at 0 o'clock. Otherwise, error of machine tool fixed position is too big. G28: Return reference point instruction. The format is G28X (U) Z (W) T0000, after be like a machine tool to start, had answered at 0 o'clock, dictate originally hold exercise tool carrier is answered through assigning a feature 0, increase the position when report to the system through appointing bit of shift otherwise. G32: Whorl cutting dictates. G32 X (U) Z (W) F , the lead that F grows axial way for whorl (namely feed speed uses Mm/r) . G50: Workpiece coordinate fastens set or instruction of clamp down on of main shaft rotate speed. The format is of G00X Z (coordinate is set) , or G50 S (rotate speed clamp down on) . Former, XZ value is a machine tool to fastened medium coordinate in the workpiece coordinate of set at 0 o'clock; Latter, s is top rotate speed. G70: Finish machining is compound circulate. The format is of F of of S of of Q of of G70 P, among them P is equal to finish machining block to begin number, q is equal to finish machining block to end number. G71: Rough machining is compound circulate. The format is of R of of G71 U, among them U is equal to X to measure or be cut to penetration of a cutting tool deep, r is equal to the quantity that retreat a knife, all be radius value. of F of of S of of W of of U of of Q of of G71 P, among them P is equal to finish machining block to begin number, q is equal to finish machining block to end number, u is equal to X to be worth to the diameter of finish machining surplus, w is equal to Z to finish machining surplus, s gives priority to axial rotate speed, f is feed speed. G72: End panel rough machining circulates. The format is of R of of G72 W, among them W is equal to Z to be measured to penetration of a cutting tool, r is equal to Z to the quantity that retreat a knife. of F of of S of of W of of U of of Q of of G72 P, among them P is equal to finish machining block to begin number, q is equal to finish machining block to end number, u is equal to X to be worth to the diameter of finish machining surplus, w is equal to Z to finish machining surplus, s gives priority to axial rotate speed, f is feed speed. G73: Fixed appearance rough machining is compound circulate. The format is of R of of W of of G73 U, among them U is equal to X to be measured to penetration of a cutting tool (or cut deep) radius value, w is equal to Z to be measured to penetration of a cutting tool, r is equal to circular time. of F of of S of of W of of U of of Q of of G73 P, among them P is equal to finish machining block to begin number, q is equal to finish machining block to end number, u is equal to X to be worth to the diameter of finish machining surplus, w is equal to Z to finish machining surplus, s gives priority to axial rotate speed, f is feed speed. G90: Cone cutting is onefold circular instruction. The format is G90 X (U) Z (W) of F of R , the rake ≤ that the definition of cone is element line 45 degrees. When turning cylinder, r=0, need not write. The action that this instruction completes (dotted line expresses fast) the １ that be like a graph, among them point of a knife from right the cutting on next towards the left, r<0, point of a knife from right go up the cutting below towards the left, r>0. The coordinate value in the instruction nods coordinate for E. 2G92 of graph １ graph: Awl whorl cutting is onefold circular instruction. The format is G92 X (U) Z (W) of F of R . When turning column whorl, r=0, need not write. The action that this instruction completes (dotted line expresses fast) the １ that be like a graph, among them point of a knife from next right going to left on cutting, r<0, point of a knife from right go up left next cutting, r>0. F is the lead of long axis direction. The coordinate value in the instruction nods coordinate for E. G94: End panel cutting is onefold circular instruction. The format is G94 X (U) Z (W) of F of R , the rake ≥ that the definition of end panel is element line 45 degrees. When turning pure end panel, r=0, need not write. The action that this instruction completes (dotted line expresses fast) if pursue 2, among them point of a knife from left go up to issue cutting right, r<0, point of a knife from right go up the cutting below towards the left, r>0. The coordinate value in the instruction nods coordinate for E. G96: Linear velocity of end panel constant dictates. The format is of G96 S. G97: Linear velocity of end panel constant cancels an instruction. The format is G97. M00: The program pauses. Should press next face plate " start " Niu Shi, continue to run a program. M02: The program ends. M03: Main shaft is turning. M04: Main shaft inverts. M05: Main shaft stops turn. M08: Open cutting fluid. M09: Shut cutting fluid. M10: Automatic whorl pours wine cup. M11: Cancel M10. M30: The program ends, return begin first. of M98 P: Call a subprogram. The format is M98 P******* , before 3 to call a number (if do not have, express １ second) , hind name of program of 4 note that it is place. M99: The subprogram ends a sign. 2. Example of process designing example example of one 2 example example of 3 4 example 6 * note example of 5 : Above is the block format that inputs through MDI, if pass RS232 interface to input the program that writes on notebook, should accord with ISO standard. The spare parts reachs O0002 of emulation graph machine program; O function assigns program number. N10T0101; N20S500M03; Main shaft is turning. N30G00X45Z2; Arrive outside semifinished product. N40G71U1.
5R1; With N50 together according to outline paragraph group N60-N140 allocates cutting parameter automatically to undertake thick car circulates, u is quantity of penetration of a cutting tool, r is the quantity that retreat a knife, all be radius value. N50G71P60Q140U0.
3; P begins paragraph of number for outline, q ends paragraph of date for outline, u is X to finish machining surplus (the diameter is worth) , w is Z to N60G01X18Z0 of finish machining surplus; Outline begins. N80 X20Z - 1; N90 Z - 28; N100 X27.
368Z - 45.
042; Dot A. N110G03X25.
019Z - 54.
286R14; Dot B. N120G02X26.
806Z - 60.
985R6; Dot C. N130G03X36Z - 73R18; N140G01Z - 85; N150G70P60Q140S1100F0.
05; N160G00X50Z60; Be far from workpiece, preparation changes a knife. N170T0202; Change cut a knife. N180S200M03; When cutting groove, requirement low rotate speed. N200G00X22Z - 28; Preparation cuts the first knife. N210G01X16F0.
03; Cut the first knife. N220G04P1000; Keep 1S. N230G00X22; Retreat a knife. N240 Z - 24; Preparation cuts the 2nd knife. N250G01X16F0.
03; Cut the 2nd knife. N260G04P1000; Keep 1S. N270G00X22; Retreat a knife. N280 Z - 21; Preparation cuts corner with right point of a knife. N290G01X16Z - 24F0.
1; Cut corner with right point of a knife. N300G00X50; N310 Z60; N320T0303; N330S300M03; Reduce rotate speed in order to cut whorl. N340G00X22Z - 23; Preparation cuts the front line of whorl. N350G92X19.
2Z3F3; Cut whorl, lead 3. N360 X18.
7; N370 X18.
3; N380 X18.
05; N390G00X22Z - 24.
5; Plan the second line that cuts whorl. N400G92X19.
2Z3F3; N410 X18.
7; N420 X18.
3; N430 X18.
05; N440G00X50; N450 Z60; N470T0202; N480S200M03; N490G00X38Z - 84; Preparation cuts off. N500G01X0F0.
03; Cut off. N520G00X50; N525 Z0; Stop in workpiece right end panel, convenient the treatment of the 2nd workpiece. N530M05; N540M30; Return program head. The spare parts reachs O0001 of emulation graph machine program; O function assigns program number. N10T0101; N20S400M03; Main shaft is turning. N30G00X40Z2; To semifinished product outside. N40G71U1.
5R1; With N50 together according to outline paragraph group N60-N150 allocates cutting parameter automatically to undertake thick car circulates, u is quantity of penetration of a cutting tool, r is the quantity that retreat a knife, all be radius value. N50G71P60Q150U0.
3; P begins paragraph of number for outline, q ends paragraph of date for outline, u is X to finish machining surplus (the diameter is worth) , w is Z to N60G01X18Z0 of finish machining surplus; Outline begins. N80 X20Z - 1; N90 Z - 10; N100 X26; N110 X28Z - 11; N120 Z - 25; N140 X35Z - 31; N150 Z - 36; Outline ends N160G70P60Q150S1100F0.
05; According to outline paragraph outline of group of N60-N150 finish machining. N170G00X50Z60; Be far from workpiece to prepare to change knife N180T0202; Change knife N190S200M03; Cut off need falls fast. N210G00X37Z - 40; Preparation cuts off, set pair of knives to nod in the left point of a knife that cuts a knife, right blade will cut the work with a long 36mm. N220G01X0F0.
03; Cut off. N230G00X50; N240G00Z0; The proposal returns here, in order to go to the lavatory the cutting of the 2nd workpiece. N250M05; Main shaft stops. N260M02; The program ends. The spare parts reachs O0003 of emulation graph machine program; N10T0101; N20S400M03; N30G00X45Z2; N40G71U2R1; N50G71P60Q140U0.
2; N60G00X0; N70G01Z0; N80G03X22Z - 11R11; N90G01Z - 20; N100 X25; N110X30Z - 40; N120X34; N130X38Z - 42; N140 Z - 80; N150G70P60Q140S1000F0.
05; N160G00X50Z60; N170T0202; N180S200M03; N190G00X40Z - 68; N200G01X30F0.
03; N210G04P1000; N220G00X40; N230Z - 64; N240G01X30F0.
03; N250G04P1000; N260G00X40; N270 Z - 61; N280G01X32Z - 65F0.
2; N290G00X50; N300 Z60; N310T0303; N320S500M03; N330G00X42Z - 64; N340G92X37Z - 38F3; N350 X36.
5; N360 X36.
2; N370 X36.
05; N380G00X42Z - 62.
5; N390G92X37Z - 38F3; N400 X36.
5; N410 X36.
2; N420 X36.
05; N430G00X50Z60; N440T0202; N450S200M03; N460G00X40Z - 79; N470G01X0F0.
03; N490G00X60; N495Z0; N500M05; N510M30; The spare parts reachs O0004 of emulation graph machine program; N10T0101; N20S400M03; N30G00X46Z2; N40G71U1.
8; N70G01Z - 18; N80 X38.
5; N90 Z - 85; N100 X39.
8; N110 Z - 111; N120 X40; N130 Z - 120; N140G70P60Q130S1000F0.
05; N150G00X50Z60; N160T0202; N170S200M03; N180G00X22Z - 14; N150G01X16F0.
03; N160G04P1000; N170G00X22; N180 Z - 18; N190G01X16F0.
03; N200G04P1000; N210G00X22; N220 Z - 11; N230G01X16Z - 14F0.
1; N240G00X22; N250 Z - 3; N260G01X15Z0.
1; N270G00X40; N280 Z - 81; N290G01X30F0.
03; N300G04P1000; N310G00X40; N320 Z - 85; N330G01X30F0.
03; N340G04P1000; N350G00X38; N360G01X42Z - 87F0.
1; N370G00Z - 107; N380G01X30F0.
03; N390G04P1000; N400G00X42; N410 Z - 111; N420G01X30F0.
03; N430G04P1000; N440G00X42; N450 Z - 104; N460G01X34Z - 108F0.
1; N470G00X50; N480 Z60; N490T0303; N500S500M03; N510G00X60Z - 17; N520G73U9.
2; N540G00X30; N550G01Z - 18; N560X36.
016Z - 26.
758Z - 47.
414R19; N580G02 Z - 62.
586R10; N590G03X38Z - 77R19; N600G01 Z - 78; N610G73P540Q600S1000F0.
05; N620S450M03; N630G00X41Z - 105; N640G92X39.
4Z - 81F3; N650 X38.
9; N660 X38.
6; N670 X38.
3; N680 X38.
05; N690G00X41Z - 106.
4Z - 81F3; N710 X38.
9; N720 X38.
6; N730 X38.
3; N740 X38.
05; N750G00Z - 12; N760 X22; N770G92X19.
4Z3F2; N780 X19; N790 X18.
7; N800G00X50Z60; N810T0202; N820S200M03; N830G00X42Z - 119; N840G01X0F0.
03; N860G00X50; N860Z0; N870M05; N880M30; The spare parts reachs O0005 of emulation graph machine program; N10T0101; N20S400M03; N30G00X45Z2; N40G71U1.
3; N60G00X14; N70G01Z0; N80 X16Z - 1; N90 Z - 20; N100 X25Z - 30; N110 Z - 33; N120G02X25Z - 45R10; N130G01Z - 53; N140 X28; N150G03X38Z - 58R5; N160G01Z - 83; N170G70P60Q160S1100F0.
05; N180G00X50Z60; N190T0202; N200S200M03; N210M08; Open cooling fluid. Attention: Hard alloy cutting tool does not use cooling fluid. N220G00X18Z - 20; N230G01X13F0.
03; N240G04P1000; N250G00X40; N260 Z - 64; N270G01X34F0.
03; N280G04P1000; N290G00X38; N300 Z - 63; N310G01X34Z - 64F0.
1; N320G00X38; N330 Z - 65; N340G01X34Z - 64F0.
1; N350G00X40; N360 Z - 82; N370G01X33F0.
03; N380G00X40; N390 Z - 79; N400G01X34Z - 82F0.
1; N410G00X50; N420 Z60; N430T0303; N440S450M03; N450G00X18Z - 18; N460G92X15.
2Z3F2; N470 X14.
6; N480 X14.
7; N500 X13.
4; N510G00X50; N520 Z60; N530T0202; N540S200M03; N550G00X38Z - 82; N560G01X0F0.
03; N570M09; Shut cooling fluid. N580G00X50; N585Z0; N590M05; N600M30; The spare parts reachs O0006 of machine program of emulation graph ; N10G92 U-4 of cutting whorl subprogram.
8W25 F3;N20 U-5.
96;N50 M99; CNC Milling